Za’atar – is a Eastern Mediterranean mixed herb you can make your own:

2 tbsp minced fresh dried thyme, 2 tbsp toasted sesame seeds, 2 tsp ground sumac, ½ tsp salt (if you don’t have sumac use pepper and lemon zest and juice in your recipe and 1 tsp dried oregano)

Nutritional yeast – Nutritional yeast has a cheesy taste to it when put into food. You can get from amazon, – you can just leave it out of the recipe if it only calls for a little or swap for cheese if you are not vegan.

Yerba – Is a green tea you can use green tea instead.

Hatcho miso – Is a miso paste you can buy online from amazon, clearspring, planet organic, wholefoods,

Vegan butter – brands like, Biona olive extract spread, Biona sunflower oil spread, - buy from Biona, Planet organic, Avocado, able and cole, If you can’t find it you can use room temperature coconut oil or oil but bare it might not work as the recipe in tended as written.

Tempeh – Is a soy product like tofu so can use tofu if can’t find or get from wholefoods, planet organic, goodness direct.

Umeboshi plum paste – It is a very salty taste you can use salt instead.

Baobab fruit powder – a superfood powder full of vitamin C can order online – Organicburst is a good brand. You can use vitamin C powder as well for the health benefits. This will not be in the recipe for flavour it will be for the benefits so can be left out if needed.

Galangal – is an essential flavour for Asian cooking especially in curries, it looks a little like ginger, if you can’t find it fresh you can buy dried and soak in water to re-hydrate which has a really long shelf life however you can use more ginger and lemon grass combined instead if you can’t find.

Cashew nut butter – All nut butters are just nuts put into a food processor with no other ingredients which after about 20 minutes turns into a thick creamy butter. You can buy online and at a lot of supermarkets and at health food stores including Holland and Barret who have over 600 stores in the UK now or make yourself!

Psyllium husk powder- This is a fiber and thickener that helps to bind things together in vegan baking. You can order online or you can try using blended up flax or chia seeds with water to make a thick gooey paste.

Alternative to these flours are hard to suggest as gluten free baking needs specific blends to make the texture light and fluffy like normal wheat flour. The best thing to do is by a Gluten free flour like Doves or Bobs Mill and add in the full amount of all the flours added together. You can buy online, supermarkets and healthfood stores.

Teff flour – A gluten free flour derived from Africa that has the most amazing fluffiness for gluten free baking. It is so nutrient dense as well – order online or by in health food stores. Its less easy to find but it is the new trend of gluten free baking.

Xanthan gum – It is essential in a recipe if it calls for it. Gluten free baking is hard to create the air and lightness and xantham helps create this. You can buy the powder from doves online.

Chai oil – You can use any oil alternative for this.

Soya yogurt – Is a dairy free yogurt you can now get at most supermarkets including tesco – make sure it is sugar free in the ingredients or you can get coconut yogurt, or use normal if you are not dairy free.

Date syrup – You can use any sweet syrup including, agave, dark agave, rice syrup, honey or coconut blossom syrup.

Mirin – is a sweet tasting rice wine from Asia you can get from clearspring online or health food stores or you can use apple cider vinegar or white wine vinegar with a pinch of sweetness to create the same flavour.

Sumac – There isn’t really an alternative for this but you can buy online or add more lemon zest, salt and pepper to help the flavours come through in your dish.

Kuzu – Is a seaweed that looks like white chalky granules – use it to thicken sauces or you can use corn flour which does the same job. You can buy online

Xylitol – A sugar alternative can be used instead of this like coconut palm sugar or stevia but must be granulated, you can try with syrup but might not turn out the same depending on the recipe.